- ABBOTT, Keith
- ABRANTES, Laure Junot d'
- ADAMOV, Arthur
- AEPLY, Janine
- AINE, Berte
- AJALBERT, Jean
- ALAIN-FOURNIER, Henri
- ALBIN, Guillot Laure
- ALEXANDRE, Arsene
- AMADO, Jorge
- ANTIN, Duke of
- APOLLINAIRE, Guillaume
- ARAGON, Louis
- ARENE, Paul
- ARLAND, Marcel
- ARTAUD, Antonin
- AUMALE, Marie-Jeanne d'
- AUSTER, Paul
- AUTIN, Jean
- AUTRAND, Charles
- AUZIAS-TURENNE, Raymond
- AYME, Marcel
- BAILLY JEAN SYLVAIN
- BAKER, Dorothy
- BALZAC, Honoré de
- BANVILLE, Theodore de
- BARBEY D'AUREVILLY, Jules
- BARBIER, Auguste
- BARRES, Mauritius
- BAUDELAIRE, Charles
- BAZIN, Hervé
- BEALU, Marcel
- BEAUHARNAIS, Fanny de
- BEAUVOIR, Simone de
- BECKETT, Samuel
- BECKFORD, William Thomas
- BEDEL, Maurice
- BELLONTE, Mauritius
- BENISTI, Edmond
- BERANGER, Pierre-Jean de
- BERAUD, Henri
- BERL, Emmanuel
- BERLIOZ, Hector
- BERNARDIN DE SAINT-PIERRE, Jacques Henri
- BERNOUARD, François
- BERRICHON, Paterne
- BERRY, André
- BERTRAND, Adrien
- BIBESCO, Prince George
- BLANCHAR, Pierre
- BLONDIN, Antoine
- BOBIN, Christian
- BOCCACE, Jean
- BOSSUET, Jacques-Bénigne
- BOULEZ, Pierre
- BOULLE, Pierre
- BOURBON, Françoise Marie de
- BOURGET, Paul
- BOUSQUET, Joé
- BOUVIER, Nicolas
- BOVE, Emmanuel
- BRETON, André
- BRINTON HARDING, Elizabeth Ann
- BRIZEUX, Auguste
- BROCK, Renée
- BRUANT, Aristide
- BRYEN, Camille
- BUTLER, Samuel
- BUTOR, Michel
- CABANEL, Guy
- CALAFERTE, Louis
- CALET, Henri
- CAMUS, Albert
- CAPOTE, Truman
- CASE, Jules
- CASSOU, Jean
- CELINE, Louis-Ferdinand
- CENDRARS, Blaise
- CHAR, René
- CHARDONNE, Jacques
- CHATEAUBRIAND, François-René
- CHATEAUBRIANT, Alphonse de
- CHATRIAN, Alexandre
- CHAZAL, Malcolm de
- CHOUARD, Louis Jules
- CHURCHILL, Winston
- CIORAN, Emil
- CLAMORGAN, Jean
- CLERC, Aimé
- COCTEAU, Jean
- CODET, Louis
- COLERIDGE, Samuel Taylor
- COLETTE, Gabrielle-Sidonie
- COLIN, Paul
- CONRAD, Joseph
- CORNEILLE, Pierre
- CORREA, Anna
- CORTAZAR, Julio
- COSSERY, Albert
- COSTES, Dieudonné
- COULANGE, Alain
- COULANGES, Philipe-Emmanuel marquis de
- COURTELINE, Georges
- CREVEL, René
- CRUZ, Ramón de la
- CURWOOD, James
- DAMISCH, Hubert
- DARIEN, Georges
- DAUDET, Alphonse
- DE GAULLE, Charles
- DEBU-BRIDEL, Jacques
- DEFORGES, Régine
- DEHARME, Lise
- DELAVIGNE, Casimir
- DELETANG-TARDIF, Yanette
- DELFAU, Jacques
- DELVALLE, Albert
- DELZANT, Alidor
- DEON, Michel
- DERMEE, Paul
- DESBORDES-VALMORE, Marceline
- DESJARDINS, Paul
- DIETRICH, Luc
- AIMING DATA, Jean
- DORVAL, Marie
- DRIEU LA ROCHELLE, Pierre
- DROüET, Marcel
- DROUOT, Paul
- DRUON, Maurice
- DUHAMEL, Georges
- DULAC, Odette
- DUMAS (SON) , Alexandre
- DUMAS (FATHER) , Alexandre
- DUMAS, René-Louis
- DUNCAN, Raymond
- DUPIN, Jacques
- DURAS, Claire de
- DURAS, Marguerite
- DURRELL, Lawrence
- ECHENOZ, Jean
- EGNAZIO, Giovanni Battista
- EIFFEL, Gustave
- ELUARD, Paul
- ERCKMANN, Émile
- ESTIENNE, Charles
- FARDOULIS-LAGRANGE, Michel
- FARGUE, Léon Paul
- FAULKNER, William
- FERRE, Léo
- FLAUBERT, Gustave
- FLERS, Robert de
- FLEURET, Fernand
- STRONG, Paul
- FRANCE, Hector
- FRANCE, Anatole
- FRANQUI, Calors
- GARNIER, Charles
- GARY, Romain
- GAUTIER, Judith
- GAUTIER, Théophile
- GENET, Jean
- GIDE, André
- GILES, Herbert A.
- GIONO, Jean
- GIRALDO, Mathias de
- GIRAUDOUX, Jean
- GOFFIC, Charles Le
- GOLL, Ivan
- GONCOURT, Edmond de
- GONCOURT, Jules de
- GOODCHILD, George
- GOUNOD, Charles
- GOURMONT, Remy de
- GRACQ, Julien
- GREEN, Julien
- GSELL, Paul
- GUAITA, Stanislas de
- GUEGAN, Gérard
- GUERIN, Daniel
- GUERIN, J. A. F.
- GUILLOUX, Louis
- GUITRY, Sacha
- HAHN, Reynaldo
- HALEVY, Ludovic
- HALIMI, Gisèle
- HAUSSY, marquee of
- HEMINGWAY, Ernest
- HENRIC, Jacques
- HONEGGER, Arthur
- HOUARD, Georges
- HOUELLEBECQ, Michel
- HOUGHTON, Claude
- HUGO, Victor
- HUIDOBRO, Vicente
- INGRES, Delphine
- ISOU, Isidore
- JABES, Edmond
- JACOB, Max
- JACQUES, Lucien
- JAMES, Henry
- JAMME, Franck André
- JAMYN, Amadis
- JANVIER, Léon
- JARRY, Alfred
- JAURES, Jean
- JOUFFROY, Alain
- JOUHANDEAU, Marcel
- JüNGER, Ernst
- KAFKA, Franz
- KESSEL, Joseph
- KIPLING, Rudyard
- KOESTLER, Arthur
- KREA, Henri
- LA BRUYERE, Jean de
- LABICHE, Eugene
- LACAN, Jacques
- LACROIX, Paul
- LAFORGUE, Jules
- LAGARDE, Robert
- LAMARTINE, Alphonse
- LARBAUD, Valery
- LATOUR, Antoine de
- LAVEDAN, Henri
- LAWRENCE, David Herbert
- THE SQUARE, John
- LE CLEZIO, Jean-Marie Gustave
- LE CORBUSIER
- LE GENTIL DE LA GALAISIERE, Guillaume
- LEBLANC, Mauritius
- LECONTE DE LISLE, Charles Marie René
- LECUIRE, Pierre
- LEGRAND, Gérard
- LEIRIS, Michel
- LEMAITRE, Maurice
- LEROUX, Gaston
- LIEBAULT, Jean
- LINTIER, Paul
- LISZT, Franz
- LONDON, Albert
- LOPE DE VEGA, Felix
- LORDES, André De
- LOUYS, Pierre
- MACHAULT, Louis de
- MAINTENON, marquise of
- MAISTER , Joseph de
- MALAMUD, Bernard
- MALLARME, Stéphane
- MALRAUX, André
- MAMET, David
- MANSOUR, Joyce
- MARAIS, Jean
- MARITAIN, Jacques
- MARSHAK, Samuil
- MATHIEU, Henry
- MAUPASSANT, Guy de
- MAURITIUS, François
- MAURRAS, Charles
- MEIR, Golda
- MERIMEE, Prosper
- MERLEAU-PONTY, Mauritius
- MERMOZ, Jean
- MESSIEAN, Olivier
- MEURICE, Paul
- MILHAUD, Darius
- MITHOUARD, Adrien
- MITTERRAND, François
- MODIANO, Patrick
- MOHANGE, Pierre
- MONTOLIEU, Isabelle de
- MORAND, Paul
- MORICE, Charles
- MORIN, Edgar
- MOSJUKIN, Ivan
- NABOKOV, Vladimir
- NDIAYE, Marie
- NERUDA, Pablo
- NERVAL, Gérard de
- NOEL, Bernard
- NOTHOMB, Amélie
- ORMESSON, Jean d'
- PARADIN, Claude
- PAULHAN, Jean
- PEGUY, Charles
- PELETIER DU MANS, Jacques
- PEREC, Georges
- PICHETTE, Henri
- PIEYRE DE MANDIARGUES, André
- PIRANDELLO, Luigi
- PONGE, Francis
- PONS, René
- POUTET, Jean-Joseph-Étienne
- PROUST, Marcel
- PYNCHON, Thomas
- QUIGNARD, Pascal
- RADIGUET, Raymond
- RAGON, Michel
- REGNAULT-WARIN, Jean-Joseph
- REGNIER, Marie de
- REMUSAT, Claire Élisabeth
- RENARD, Jules
- RENOIR, Pierre
- REY, Jean-Dominique
- RHEM, Félicien
- RIBEMONT-DESSAIGNES, Georges
- RICHEPIN, Jean
- RIMBAUD, Arthur
- RIVIER, Jean
- RIVIERE, Jacques
- ROBBE-GRILLET, Alain
- ROCH, Eugene
- ROLIN, Dominica
- ROMANS, Jules
- ROSTAND, Edmond
- ROUSSEL, Raymond
- ROZIER, François
- RUSHDIE, Salman
- RUSKIN JOHN
- SABATIER, Roland
- SAINT-EXUPERY, Antoine de
- SAINTE LORETTE, Lucien de
- SAINTE-BEUVE, Charles-Augustin
- SALOMON, Ernst von
- SAND, George
- SARRAUTE, Nathalie
- SARTRE, Jean-Paul
- SATIE, Erik
- SCARRON, Paul
- SCHELER, Lucien
- SCHELER, Auguste
- SCHILLER, Friedrich von
- SCHWOB, Marcel
- SEGALEN, Victor
- SEMPRUN, Jorge
- SERSTEVENS, Albert t'
- SEUPHOR, Michel
- SIENKIEWICZ, Henryk
- SIMENON, Georges
- SIMON, Claude
- SIZERANNE, Robert de la
- SOLLERS, Philippe
- SOULIE, Frédéric
- SOUPAULT, Phillippe
- SOUZA, Robert de
- STEVENSON, Robert Louis
- STIL, André
- STRAVINSKY, Igor
- SUARES, André
- TENDRET, Lucien
- TOUDOUZE, Gustave
- TOURNIER, Michel
- TRISTAN L'HERMITE, François L'Hermite du Solier (said)
- TRUCCHI, Lorenza
- TRUTAT, Alain
- TZARA, Tristan
- UPDIKE, John
- VACQUERIE, Auguste
- VAILLAND, Roger
- VALERY, Paul
- VAUX, Charles-Maurice de
- VERANE, Léon
- VERCORS, Jean Bruller says
- VERLAINE, Paul
- VIAN, Boris
- VIEL, Tanguy
- VIGNY, Alfred de
- VILLEFORT, Madame de
- VILMORIN, Louise de
- VISAN, Tancrède de
- WAUGH, Evelyn
- WILDE, Oscar
- WYKES, Henry
- XURIGUERA, Gérard
- ZOLA, Émile
Laure Junot d' Abrantès
(born November 6, 1784 in Montpellier and died June 7, 1838 in Paris)
Laure Junot, Duchess of Abrantes, born Laure Adelaïde Constance Permon.
(Born October 3, 1886 in La Chapelle-d'Angillon in the Cher and killed in action on September 22, 1914 in Saint-Remy-la-Calonne)
Henri-Alban Fournier, born in La Chapelle-d'Angillon, spent part of his childhood in Epineuil-le-Fleuriel where his parents were teachers. At the age of twelve, he entered the Lycée Voltaire in Paris, then the Lycée Lakanal in Sceaux. After his military service, he gave up the idea of entering the Ecole Normale, and returned, thanks to Charle Morice, to Paris-Journal and wrote a literary column for several years. He also gives poems, essays and short stories to several magazines. But Alain-Fournier devotes most of his time to writing a novel, the Great Meaulnes. First published in serial form, in La NRF, it was edited in volume, by Emile-Paul Frères, in September 1913. It was an immediate success and just missed out on the Goncourt prize. In 1914, Alain-Fournier begins a new novel, Northern Dove and a play. But the war stops him. He is mobilized on August 2nd and joins the 288th infantry regiment which takes part in the Battle of the Marne. Sent on reconnaissance near Saint-Remy, he crossed the Calonne trench with his company and fell into an ambush. He was killed instantly. He was 28 years old.
Jorge Amado de Faria
(Itabuna, State of Bahia: 10 August 1912 - Salvador, State of Bahia: 6 August 2001)
Brazilian writer of the modernist school.
Duke of Antin
Louis-Antoine de Pardaillan de Gondrin, Marquis d'Antin, de Gondrin et de Montespan (1701), then 1st Duke d'Antin
( Paris : 5 September 1665 - 2 November 1736)
William Albert Vladimir Alexander Apollinaire of Kostrowitzky
(born Polish subject of the Russian Empire, August 26, 1880 in Rome and died in Paris on November 9, 1918).
(Varennes-sur-Amance - Haute-Marne: 5 July 1899; Saint-Sauveur-sur-École - Seine-et-Marne: 12 January 1986)
Marie-Jeanne d' Aumale
(Vergies , Somme : 07 1683 - Soissons, Aisne : 12-1756)
Coming from a noble family from Picardy. Admitted to the house of education of Saint-Cyr, she became in 1705 the secretary of Mrs de Maintenon.
Bailly Jean Sylvain
(Paris: September 15, 1736 - November 12, 1793) French mathematician, astronomer, writer and politician. He was the first mayor of Paris.
(Missoula, Montana, USA: April 21, 1907 - Terra Bella, California, USA: June 17, 1968)
Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de BalzacHe was born Honoré Balzac in Tours on 20 May 1799 and died in Paris on 18 August 1850.
Theodore de Banville
(born on 14 March 1823 in Moulins - Allier and died on 13 March 1891 in Paris 6th arrondissement)
Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly
(Born on 2 November 1808 in Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte (Manche), Normandy, died on 23 April 1889 in Paris).
Maurice Barrès was born in 1862 in Charmes (Vosges) and died on 4 December 1923 in Neuilly-sur-Seine (Seine).
(Lyon: 21 September 1885 - Saint-Clément-des-Baleines on the Ile de Ré: 24 October 1958)
(La Côte-Saint-André, Isère: 11 December 1803 - Paris: 8 March 1869-
French composer, conductor, music critic and writer.
Paterne Berrichon (1855-1922), whose real name was Pierre Dufour, came to Paris in 1880 to attend the École des Beaux-Arts. Painter, sculptor, draftsman, he also became a poet by frequenting literary circles, meeting Paul Verlaine who signed the frontispiece-poem of Cursed Wine : "To Paterne Berrichon / Both of us have this weakness / To love good verses / And to love our rest; / So everything to the point of randomness / Punishes on our sad skins / These lizard principles. »
Admirer of Rimbaud, he will become his brother-in-law, after his marriage with Isabelle, the poet's younger sister. From then on, he will be one of the most important promoters and defenders of the work of the cursed poet.
( Creusot, Saône-et-Loire : 24 April 1951)
Prix des Deux Magots (1993)
Catholic Grand Prize for Literature (1993)
2010 Panorama - La Procure Spirituality Book Award 2010
Academy Awards (2016)
(1313 in Certaldo in Tuscany - December 21, 1375 in his native town)
Giovanni Boccaccio, in French Jean Boccace, Boccacio or Boccace .
(Dijon, Kingdom of France: 27 September 1627 - Paris, Kingdom of France: Death 12 April 1704)
Françoise Marie de Bourbon
Françoise-Marie de Bourbon, Second Mademoiselle de Blois
(Château de Maintenon: 4 May 1677 - at Saint-Cloud: 1 February 1749)
Legitimate daughter of France, by her marriage to the Duchess of Chartres and Duchess of Orleans. Natural daughter that Louis XIV secretly had from the Marquise de Montespan.
(born in Tinchebray in the Orne region of France on 19 February 1896, died in Paris on 28 September 1966)
Elizabeth Ann BRINTON HARDING
Elizabeth Ann Britton Harding
(Asbury Park, New Jersey, U.S.: October 22, 1919 - Welches, Oregon, U.S.: November 17, 2005)
Camille Bryen, real name Camille Briand (Nantes: 17 September 1907 - Paris: 8 May 1977), French abstract and tachist poet, painter and engraver, member of the New School of Paris.
Truman Streckfus Persons
(New Orleans: September 30, 1924 - Los Angeles: August 25, 1984)
(born May 27, 1894 in Courbevoie and died July 1, 1961 in Meudon)
Frédéric Louis Sauser, Freddy Sausey, Jack Lee, Diogenes
(born on 1 September 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland and died on 21 January 1961 in Paris)
(Barbezieux: January 2, 1884 - La Frette-sur-Seine: May 29, 1968)
(Augustus), Viscount de Chateaubriand...
Born in Saint-Malo on 4 September 1768 and died in Paris on 4 July 1848.
Alphonse de Chateaubriant
(born in Rennes on 25 March 1877 and died in exile in Kitzbühel, Austria, on 2 May 1951)
Alexander Chatrian (born 18 December 1826 in Soldatenthal and died 3 September 1890 in Villemomble)
Malcolm de Chazal
(born in Vacoas, Mauritius, on 12 September 1902 and died in Curepipe on 1 October 1981)
Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill
(Blenheim Palace, Woodstock - Oxfordshire - United Kingdom: 30 November 1874; London: 24 January 1965)
emil sjɔʁɑ̃ - eˈmil t͡ʃoˈran
(Resinár, Austria-Hungary, currently Rășinari in Romania: 8 April 1911 - Paris: 20 June 1995)
Jean Clamorgan (1480-1566)
Born in 1480, in Saane, in the diocese of Coutances. Died in 1566, in St Pierre l'Eglise, Manche.
Born on 5 July 1889 in Maisons-Laffitte and died on 11 October 1963 in his house in Milly-la-Forêt. French poet, graphic designer, draftsman, playwright and filmmaker, member of the Académie française from 1955.
Born on 28 January 1873 in Saint-Sauveur-en-Puisaye (Yonne) - died on 3 August 1954 in Paris. Mime, actress and journalist, a French woman of letters known above all as a novelist, Colette was after Judith Gautier in 1910, the second woman elected member of the Goncourt academy in 1945, of which she became president between 1949 and 1954.
(Meaning: February 10, 1920; Clamart: March 20, 2018)
Prix Goncourt in 1950 for The Wild Games.
Teodor Józef Konrad Korzeniowski herb. Nałęcz
(born on 3 December 1857 in Berditchev - Ukraine - Russian Empire and died on 3 August 1924 in Bishopsbourne - Kent - England )
the Great Crow, Cornelius the Elder...
(born 6 June 1606 in Rouen and died 1 October 1684 in Paris)
Julio Florencio Cortázar Descotte
(Argentine : 26 août 1914 – Paris : 12 février 1984)
Philipe-Emmanuel Marquis de Coulanges
Philippe-Emmanuel de Coulanges known as the Marquis de Coulanges
(Paris: August 23, 1633 - January 31, 1716)
Georges Moinaux or Sparrow
(born June 25, 1858 in Tours, died June 25, 1929 in Paris)
Hubert Damisch (1928) philosophe français spécialisé en esthétique et histoire de l’art est professeur à l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales de Paris.
(born on 13 May 1840 in Nîmes in the Gard department and died on 16 December 1897 in Paris)
Charles De Gaulle
General de Gaulle
(born on 22 November 1890 in Lille - died on 9 November 1970 in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises)
(Mézières-en-Drouais, Eure-et-Loir: 22 August 1902 - Paris: 20 October 1993)
Writer, French politician, Resistance fighter (member of the National Council of Resistance), Gaullist senator (RPF) (1948-1958), news director of Radio Monte-Carlo (1960-1967), one of the leaders of left-wing Gaullism (Democratic Labour Union).
Lise Anne-Marie Hirtz
(Paris 8e: 5 May 1898 - Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine: 19 January 1980)
Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, born in Douai on 20 June 1786 and died in Paris on 23 July 1859.
Pierre Drieu la Rochelle
(born on January 3, 1893 in the 10th arrondissement of Paris and died in the 17th arrondissement of Paris on March 15, 1945)
(Sedan: 19 August 1888 - Consenvoye: 4 January 1915)
Born in Sedan, Marcel Drouet contributed to several magazines: Le Divan, Les Guêpes, and the Revue critique des Idées et des Livres. In 1911, he became secretary general of the Marches de l'Est. This review was founded in 1909 by a handful of writers mobilized against the threatening pangermanist. Close to Georges Ducrocq, Maurice Barrès, Paul Drouot, he published two works in 1912: Quelques Feuillets du livre Juvénile and L'Ombre qui tourne.
(Vouziers: 21 May 1886 - Aix-Noulette: 9 June 1915)
Born in Vouziers, he studied in Paris, participated in the creation of the review Psyché and published three volumes of verse. He joined the 131st RI then the 3rd battalion of foot soldiers. On the 8th June 1915, he was hit by shrapnel in front of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette.
(Paris: 30 June 18841 - Valmondois, Seine-et-Oise: 13 April 1966)
Civilization: Goncourt Prize 1918
Member of the Académie Française from 1935.
(1865-1939) is the artist name of Jeanne Latrilhe, French singer, painter, sculptor and writer from the Southwest. After receiving a solid education, she enchants theaters and cabarets of the Belle Epoque with her soprano voice and impeccable diction. But in 1904, she abandoned the stage of the Butte Montmartre to devote herself to painting, sculpture and writing. Her first novel, Le Droit au plaisir [The Right to Pleasure], exploring female desire, was published in 1908. Then, Le Silence des Femmes [The Silence of Women], La houille rouge [The Red Coal], Les enfants de la violence [The Children of Violence], L'Enferno d'une embrace [The Inferno of an Embrace], in which the themes of love were expressed to the feminist activist, defending women's right to vote, the creation of maternity and nurseries, the development of childcare. In addition to her novels, from 1917 she published in various chronicles, stories and short stories. She became a member of the Société des gens de lettres in 1922 under the patronage of Aristide Bruant.
Alexandre Dumas (father)
(born on 24 July 1802 in Villers-Cotterêts in the Aisne and died on 5 December 1870 in Puys, near Dieppe in Seine-Maritime).
Poet, son of the famous composer Louis Dumas, he was awarded the Paul Hervieu Prize of the French Academy in 1952 for his work In the gardens of Ronsard.
Claire de Duras
Claire Louisa Rose Bonne, Duchess of Duras, Coëtnempren de Kersaint
(born in 1777 or 1778 in Brest and died on 16 January 1828 in Nice)
(born April 4, 1914 in Gia Định (near Saigon), then in French Indochina and died March 3, 1996 in Paris)
Born on 27 February 1912 in Jalandhar in the British Indies - died on 7 November 1990 in Sommières in France.
(Orange, Vaucluse: December 26, 1947 )
1983 Prix Médicis for Cherokee
1999 Goncourt Prize for I'm leaving.
Giovanni Battista Egnazio
Giovanni Battista Egnazio (Venice, 1473?-1553): Humanist, philologist, poet and prose writer, he was a pupil of the Political Angel and a fellow disciple of Leo X, the friend of Erasmus and of Pietro Bembo, Sabellico's opponent. Professor of eloquence in Venice (in 1520), he wrote numerous commentaries on classical works, published by Aldo Manuzio.
Alexandre Gustave Bonickhausen dit Eiffel
(Dijon: December 15, 1832 - Paris: December 7, 1923)
He is an engineer from Central France and a French industrialist, who notably participated in the construction of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Garabit Viaduct and the Statue of Liberty in New York.
(born in Saint-Denis on 14 December 1895 and died in Charenton-le-Pont on 18 November 1952)
Emile Erckmann (born May 21, 1822 in Phalsbourg and died March 14, 1899 in Lunéville)
Charles Estienne (1504 (?) - 1564), French physician, printer and writer, known by the Latin name Carolus Stephanus.
Léon Paul Fargue
(born on March 3, 1876 in the 1 district of Paris and died on November 24, 1947 in the 6 district of Paris)
Fernand Joseph Désiré Contandin
(born May 8, 1903 in Marseille and died February 26, 1971 in Paris)
(born in Rouen on 12 December 18211 and died in Croisset, a locality of the commune of Canteleu, on 8 May 1880)
Robert de Flers
(born in Pont-l'Évêque on 25 November 1872 and died in Vittel on 30 July 1927)
Marquis de La Motte-Ango, Count of Flers, playwright member of the French Academy.
Born on 16 April 1844 in Paris, and died on 12 October 1924 in Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire (Indre-et-Loire).
His real name, François Anatole Thibault, was considered one of the greatest writers and literary critics of the Third Republic.
(born on 4 December 1921 in Las Villas (Cuba) and died on 16 April 2010 in Puerto Rico)
Cuban writer, poet, journalist, art critic and political activist.
Roman Kacew, Emile Ajar, Fosco Sinibaldi , Shatan Bogat
(Vilna in the Russian Empire, now Vilnius in Lithuania: May 21, 1914 - Paris: December 2, 1980).
Louise Charlotte Ernestine Gautier, Mrs. Catulle Mendès
Born in Paris on August 25, 1845 and died in Saint-Énogat (now Dinard) on December 26, 1917.
(born in Tarbes on 30 August 18111 and died in Neuilly-sur-Seine on 23 October 1872)
Writer, poet and playwright (Paris: 19 December 1910- 15 April 1986).
Abandoned at birth by his mother, Jean Genet was placed in a family in the Morvan. A thief from an early age, he experiences his first homosexual emotions, the founding elements of the Genet myth. From his adolescence he begins a marginal and rebellious existence, passing through the penal colony of Métray, the Foreign Legion and prison on several occasions. It was in Fresnes that he began his first work, in 1942, The death row inmate. Several autobiographical novels will follow:
Our Lady of Flowers (1944), Miracle of the rose (1946), Brest Quarrel (1947), Funeral Home (1947). These first novels judged pornographic are censored and without the support of Jean Cocteau and Jean-Paul Sartre, Genet would probably have remained in the shadows and in prison for life. From 1947, Genet devotes himself to the theatre: The maids (1947), High surveillance (1949), Negroes (1959), Screens (1961). Co-founder with Michel Foucault of the observatory of prisons, takes sides with the Algerian independentists, commits himself to the Black Panthers and the Palestinians writing The captive in love (1986) and The declared enemy (posth. 1991)
In 1983 he was awarded the Grand Prix national des lettres, and is today one of the most frequently performed playwrights in the French repertoire.
(born on 29 October 1882 in Bellac in the Haute-Vienne and died on 31 January 1944 in Paris)
His real name was Isaac Lang, born in Saint-Dié on 29 March 1891 and died in Neuilly-sur-Seine on 27 February 1950.
Edmond de Goncourt
(born in Nancy on 26 May 1822 and died in Champrosay (Essonne) on 16 July 1896 in the house of Alphonse Daudet)
(born on 17 June 1818 in Paris - died on 18 October 1893 in Saint-Cloud (Seine-et-Oise))
Remy de Gourmont
(Manoir de la Motte in Bazoches-au-Houlme: 4 April 1858 - Paris: 27 September 1915)
(born on 27 July 1910 in Saint-Florent-le-Vieil - Maine-et-Loire and died on 22 December 2007 in Angers)
Meudon - Hauts-de-Seine: 24 January 1870; Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse - Yvelines: 19 April 1947.
(born on 19 May 1904 in the 17th arrondissement of Paris and died on 14 April 1988 in Suresnes, Hauts-de-Seine)
(born February 21, 1885 in St. Petersburg, Russia and died July 24, 1957 in Paris 7th district)
(born in Caracas on August 9, 18741, and died in Paris on January 28, 1947)
French composer of Venezuelan origin, conductor, singer and music critic.
جيزيل حليمي - Zeiza Gisèle Élise Taïeb - زيزا جيزيل إليز الطيب
(La Goulette in Tunisia: July 27, 1927- Paris: July 28, 2020)
Lawyer, feminist activist and politician.
Madame d'Ossy, Aussy, Auxy...
Jeanne-Thérèse de Launoy de Penkrec, Born Pench'rech or Pincré
(Bishopric of Tréguier: 1698 - 177?)
Daughter of a Breton gentleman, raised in the entourage of Madame de Maintenon. - Married on 11 March 1711, in the chapel of the Château de Versailles, to Étienne-Joseph d'Isarn de Villefort de Montjeu, Marquis d'Haussy, Governor of Guérande. - Was sub-governor of the Enfants de France (1754-1774).
Ernest Miller Hemingway
(Oak Park, Illinois, USA: July 21, 1899 - Ketchum, Idaho, USA: July 2, 1961)
Claude Houghton Oldfield
(Sevenoaks, Kent: May 1889; Eastbourne, East Sussex: 10 February 1961)
(born 27 April 1893 in Santiago, and died 2 January 1948)
Chilean surrealist poet and writer who contributed greatly to the renewal of South American poetry during the 20th century. He is considered, along with Pablo Neruda, Gabriela Mistral and Pablo de Rokha, as one of the four greats of Chilean poetry.
Paris, December 26, 1808 - May 11, 1887
Daughter of Dominique Ramel and Marie Anne Philippine Delphine Bochet
Last wife of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.
Franck André Jamme
(Clermont-Ferrand: 21 November 1947 - Les Bordes:
1 October 2020).
French poet and specialist in the raw, tantric and tribal arts of contemporary India, master builder of René Char's La Pléiade.
(born May 6, 1815 in Paris where he died January 22, 1888). He was elected member of the Académie française in 1880.
(Born in Montevideo on 16 August 1860 and died in the 7th arrondissement of Paris on 20 August 1887)
Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine,
(Mâcon: October 21, 1790 ; Paris: February 28, 1869)
French poet, novelist, playwright, politician who participated in the Revolution of February 1848 and proclaimed the Second Republic. He is one of the great figures of Romanticism in France.
A.-O. Barnabooth, L. Hagiosy, X. M. Tourmier de Zamble
(Vichy: 29 August 1881 - 2 February 1957). He also wrote under the pseudonyms
Antoine de Latour
(Saint-Yrieix: 30 August 1808; Seals: 27 August 1881)
Son of the publisher and bibliophile Jean-Baptiste Tenant de Latour (1779-1862), Antoine Tenant de Latour became, after studies at the École Normale (1826), tutor to the Duke of Montpensier (1832) and then his first secretary in 1843.
A man of letters and a poet, he publishes extensively. In love with Spain and its literature, he made many Spanish authors known through his essays and translations of Calderón de la Barca, Fernán Caballero, Juan de Mariana, Juan Díaz de Solís, Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch, Ramón de la Cruz.
He was received on 9 May 1858 at the Real Academia de Buenas Letras in Seville.
(Orleans: April 9, 1859; Écaquelon: September 4, 1940 )
Collaborator at theEcho of Parisat the Figaroat the Gil-Blas Henri Lavedan had great success in the theater: One familyThe four-act comedy, performed in 1890 at the Théâtre-Français, earned him the Prix Toirac at the Académie; he then gave Lhe Prince d'Aurec in Vaudeville (1892), Catherine, The Marquis de Priola, at the Théâtre-Français (1903) Le Nouveau Jeu, Le Vieux Marcheur, Varennesetc.
Henri Lavedan was elected to the Académie française on December 8, 1898, replacing Henri Meilhac, and was received on December 28, 1899 by Charles Costa de Beauregard.
(Born on 6 October 1887 in La Chaux-de-Fonds, in the canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland, and died on 27 August 1965 in Roquebrune-Cap-Martin)
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, better known under the pseudonym "Le Corbusier", is an architect, urban planner, decorator, painter, sculptor and man of letters, Swiss by birth and naturalized French in 1930.
Guillaume Le Gentil de La Galaisière
(Coutances, 12 September 1725 - Paris, 22 October 1792)
Leaving in 1760 to observe the transit of Venus on June 6, 1761, Guillaume Le Gentil de la Galaisiere arrived in front of Pondicherry, a French trading post in the Indies then occupied by the English.
Unable to disembark, he remains at sea without being able to observe the transit of 6 June. He then decided to stay on site after the town was returned to France in 1763 to observe the next transit, scheduled for June 1769. He built an observatory, installed excellent instruments, learned the language of the country and Indian astronomy and the local flora.
But on June 3, 1769, the day of the transit of Venus, bad weather prevented him from observing the phenomenon.
On his way back to France, his boat was forced to turn back due to a storm at the Cape of Good Hope and dropped him off at Reunion Island. He had to wait for a Spanish boat to agree to take him back to Europe.
Finally, when he returned to Paris in 1771, he found that he was legally declared dead and that his property was in the process of being distributed to his heirs. His seat at the Academy of Sciences was occupied and his wife remarried.
He will eventually regain his rights after two trials and the intervention of the king.
Charles Marie René Leconte de Lisle
(born October 22, 1818 in Saint-Paul on Reunion Island 1 and died July 17, 1894 in Voisins - Yvelines)
Jean Liébault (born around 1535 in Dijon - died 21 June 1596 in Paris), French physician, editor and translator of several books on medicine and agronomy.
( Doborján: 22 October 1811 - Bayreuth: 31 July 1886) Hungarian composer, transcriber and virtuoso pianist.
(Vichy: 1 November 1884 - Gulf of Aden, off the Protectorate of Aden (now Yemen), Indian Ocean: 16 May 1932)
Since 1933, the Albert-London Prize has been awarded to the best French-speaking journalists.
Pierre Félix Louis
(born in Ghent (Belgium) on 10 December 1870 and died in Paris 16th on 4 June 1925)
awning of Maintenon
Françoise d'Aubigné or d'Aubigny
(Niort: 27 November 1635 - Saint-Cyr-l'École: 15 April 1719)
(Brooklyn, New York, United States: April 26, 1914;
Manhattan, New York, United States: March 18, 1986)
Étienne Mallarmé, known as Stéphane Mallarmé (born in Paris on 18 March 1842 and died on 9 September 1898, in Valvins - commune of Vulaines-sur-Seine, Seine-et-Marne)
(born on 3 November 1901 in the 18th arrondissement of Paris and died on 23 November 1976 in Créteil, Val-de-Marne)
Joyce Patricia Adès
(Born in Bowden, England on July 25, 1928 and died in Paris on August 27, 1986)
Самуи́л Я́ковлевич Марша́к
(3 November 1887, Voronezh, Russian Empire
- 4 July 1964, Moscow, Russian SFSR)
Guy de Maupassant
Henry-René-Albert-Guy de Maupassant
(born August 5, 1850 at the Château de Miromesnil in Tourville-sur-Arques, Seine-Inférieure, and died July 6, 1893 in Paris)
François Mauriac, born October 11, 1885 in Bordeaux and died September 1, 1970 in Paris, is a French writer. Winner of the Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française in 1926, he was elected a member of the Académie française au fauteuil no 22 in 1933. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1952.
(born on 20 April 1868 in Martigues, Bouches-du-Rhône and died on 16 November 19521 in Saint-Symphorien-lès-Tours, Indre-et-Loire)
גּוֹלְדָּה מֵאִיר - Golda Meirson - Golda Mabovitch
(Kiev: 3 May 1898 - Jerusalem 8 December 1978). She took part in the creation of the State of Israel, was Minister of Foreign Affairs and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel from 17 March 1969 to 11 April 1974.
Born in Aubenton (Aisne) on 9 December 1901 and disappeared in the Atlantic Ocean on 7 December 1936.
(born on 26 October 1916 in Jarnac - Charente and died on 8 January 1996 in Paris 7e)
French statesman, President of the Republic from 21 May 1981 to 17 May 1995.
(Baptized January 15, 1622 in Paris and died February 17, 1673 in Paris)
Isabelle de Montolieu
Elisabeth Jeanne Pauline - known as Isabelle - Polier de Bottens
(born on 7 May 1751 in Lausanne and died on 29 December 1832 in her house in Vennes)
Иван Ильич Мозжухин
(September 26, 1889: Penza, Russia; Neuilly-sur-Seine: January 17, 1939)
Russian actor and director naturalized French in the 1920s.
Владимир Владимирович Набоков
(Saint Petersburg: 10 April 1899 - Lausanne: 2 July 1977)
(Pithiviers - Loiret : June 4, 1967 )
Femina Award in 2001 for Rosie Carp,
Goncourt prize in 2009 for Three powerful women.
Pen name of Fabienne Claire Nothomb
(Etterbeekb, Brussels-Capital: 9 July 1966)
French-speaking Belgian novelist.
- René-Fallet Prize and Alain-Fournier Prize in 1993 for Hygiene of the assassin.
- Prix littéraire de la Vocation and Prix Jacques-Chardonne, for The Sabotage in love.
- Jean Giono Jury Prize in 1995 and Roland de Jouvenel Prize of the French Academy in 1996, for The Catilinarians.
- Grand prix du roman de l'Académie française in 1999 for Stupor and Tremor.
- Prix de Flore in 2007, for Neither Eve nor Adam.
- Grand prix Jean-Giono in 2008, crowning his body of work.
(born in Cuiseaux Saône around 1510 - died in Lyon around 1510. 1573)
Claude Paradin Chanoine de Beaujeu, genealogist and heraldic writer, brother of Guillaume Paradin.
(born on 7 January 1873 in Orléans and died on 5 September 1914 in Villeroy - Seine-et-Marne)
(born on June 28, 1867 in Agrigento, Sicily, at the place called "Caos", between Agrigento and Porto Empedocle, during a cholera epidemic, and died in Rome on December 10, 1936).
Titus Maccius Plautus
Plautus, in Latin Titus Maccius Plautus, born around 254 BC in Sarsina in ancient Umbria, now located in Emilia-Romagna and died in 184 BC in Rome.
(born in Montpellier on 27 March 1899 and died in Bar-sur-Loup, Alpes-Maritimes, on 6 August 1988).
(born in Rouquevaire - Bouches- du-Rhône, December 28, 1779 and died in 1858)
Chemist member of the Academy of Marseille, correspondent of the Medical Academy of Paris and of several learned societies.
(Marseille: 24 June 1924 - Suresnes: 14 February 2020)
French writer, art critic, literary critic and architectural historian.
Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Junbient Philadelphe Regnault-Warin , Julius-Junius Regnault
(Bar-le-Duc: 28 December 1773; Paris: 4 November 1844)
Marie de Regnier
Gérard d'Houville - Marie de Heredia
(born on 20 December 1875 in Paris 7th and died on 6 February 1963 in Suresnes)
Claire Élisabeth Rémusat
Claire Élisabeth Jeanne Gravier de Vergennes, Countess of Rémusat
(Paris: 5 January 1780 - 16 December 1821)
Wife of Auguste Laurent de Rémusat.
(born in Châlons-du-Maine - Mayenne, February 22, 1864 and died at the age of 46, May 22, 1910 in Paris)
(Medea - French Algeria: February 4, 1849; Paris: December 12, 1926)
"I would like to have as my sole and supreme reward for my love of our language, the joy of finding, even if only once, the words with a deep cry, with a definitive expression, with a lyrical image, which will become part of the heritage of this language, so much so that no one will know that they are mine. »
"It's raining! It's wet!
It's the frog party. »
(Tunis: 25 October 1915 - Niort: 6 January 2017)
From 1952 onwards, Jean Rivier was a member of the group of "potters of Vallauris", the Mecca of ceramics from 1930 to 1970, with Pablo Picasso, Jean Marais, Jean Gerbino, Roger Capron, Robert Picault, Alexandre Kostanda, Jean Derval and Jacques Innocenti.
In 1955, Jean Rivier took part in a travelling exhibition of pottery from the Vallauris group in about thirty American museums.
Professor of ceramics at the School of Fine Arts in Tours from 1973, Jean Rivier also devoted himself to lithography and poetry.
(Brussels: 22 May 1913 - Paris: 15 May 2012).
Belgian writer, member of the Royal Academy of French Language and Literature of Belgium.
(born in Saint-Julien-Chapteuil - Haute-Loire on 26 August 1885 and died in Paris on 14 August 1972)
Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
(born on 29 June 1900 in Lyon and disappeared in flight on 31 July 1944 at sea off Marseille)
(Born on January 15, 1861 in the Saint-Henri district of Marseille and died on October 18, 1940 in Brest)
Lucien de Sainte Lorette
(November 12, 1914 - November 6, 1992)
Correspondent of the Institut de France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences) and Vice-President of the European League for Economic Cooperation.
The Idea of Union European federalA. Colin, 1954.
The Common MarketParis, A. Colin, 1958.
(born on 23 December 1804 in Boulogne-sur-Mer and died on 13 October 1869 in Paris)
(born in Paris on 1 July 1804 and died in the Château de Nohant-Vic on 8 June 1876)
Amantine Aurore Lucile Dupin, Baroness Dudevant, known as George Sand, novelist, playwright, epistolier, literary critic, journalist.
Natalia (Natasha) Chernniak
(born in Ivanovo-Voznessensk, Russia, on 18 July 1900, died in Paris on 19 October 1999)
(born on 21 June 1905 in the 16th arrondissement of Paris and died on 15 April 1980 in the 14th arrondissement)
(born July 4, 1610 in Paris and died October 6, 1660 in Paris)
Squire and Lord of Fougerest, Beauvais and La Rivière.
Louis de Landes
(Ebnat - Switzerland, 06 April 1819; Ixelles - Belgium, 16 November 1890)
Historian and philologist, librarian of the Royal Library.
Friedrich von Schiller
Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) Schiller is a German poet, writer and theoretician of aesthetics, born on 10 November 1759 in Marbach am Neckar and died on 9 May 1805 in Weimar.
(born on 23 August 1867 in Chaville- Seine-et-Oise and died in Paris on 26 February 1905)
Albert t' Serstevens
(Uccle - Brussels: 24 September 1885 - Neuilly-sur-Seine - Hauts-de-Seine: 13 May 1974)
Ferdinand Louis Berckelaers
(Antwerp: 10 March 1901 - Paris: 12 February 1999)
Abstract painter, art critic and writer.
Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz
(Wola Okrzejska : 5 mai 1846 – Vevey : 15 novembre 1916)
(born on 10 October 1913 in Tananarive, Madagascar and died on 6 July 2005 in Paris)
The Nobel Prize in Literature.
Robert de la Sizeranne
(born in Tain-l'Hermitage in the Drôme on 28 April 1866 and died in Paris on 14 September 1932)
French art critic and writer.
- Ruskin and the religion of beauty, (1897)
- The mirror of life, essays on aesthetic evolution, (1902)
- Contemporary English Painting, Hachette, 1904.
- Les Questions esthétiques contemporaines, Hachette, 1904
- Le préraphaélisme, Edition : New York ; [Paris] : Parkstone international
- Art during the War 1914-1918, (1919)
- Is Photography an Art, (1899)
- Introduction of Selected Pages of John Ruskin', (1930)
Robert de Souza
French symbolist poet, disciple of Stéphane Mallarmé, theorist of the verse librarian.
Robert Louis Stevenson
(Born 13 November 1850 in Edinburgh and died 3 December 1894 in Vailima - Samoa)
Isaac Félix Suarès dit André Suarès (born in Marseille on 12 June 1868 and died on 7 September 1948 in Saint-Maur-des-Fossés)
(1825 – 1896)
French lawyer and gastronome born in Belley (Ain). He is the nephew of Brillat-Savarin and the author of the reference book, The Table in the land of Brillat-Savarin published in 1892.
(Paris: 19 May 1847 in Paris - l2 July 1904)
As a student at Collège Sainte-Barbe from 1855 to 1869, Gustave Toudouze was a close associate of Gustave Flaubert who encouraged his beginnings, and then assiduously attended the attic of Edmond de Goncourt, thus getting closer to Émile Zola, Alphonse Daudet, Alexandre Dumas fils and especially Guy de Maupassant who will dedicate the news to him. Traveling in 1883. A work by Gustave Toudouze was also part of the famous collection of Edmond de Goncourt's portrait books: Perished at sea!The author's portrait was painted the same year by his brother Édouard and is now kept in the library of the Arsenal.
Finally, he was also responsible for the posthumous volume of Selected Pages of the Goncourt Brothers published at Armand Colin in 1896 for whom he wrote the introduction.
(Paris: 19 December 1924; Choisel: 18 January 2016)
Grand prix du roman de l'Académie française for Friday or Pacific Rim
Prix Goncourt 1970 for The Alder King
Member of the Académie Goncourt from 1972 to 2010.
François L'Hermite du Solier (known as) Tristan L'Hermite
François L'Hermite du Solier, known as Tristan L'Hermite or Tristan
(Château du Solier near Janaillat in the Marche: 1601 - , Paris: 7 September 1655), French gentleman, poet, playwright and novelist. First page in the entourage of Henri de Bourbon-Verneuil, natural son of King Henri IV, then swordsman in the service of Louis XIII and his brother Gaston, Duke of Orleans.
Author of five tragedies, a tragi-comedy, a comedy and a pastoral, five collections of gallant, heroic and religious verses, a novel and Lettres mêlées, Tristan approaches all genres. The publication of Acante ComplaintsIn 1633, he was revealed as the successor to Malherbe and Théophile de Viau in the field of love, elegiac and lyrical poetry. His first play was successful in 1636, La MarianeIn the film, the actor Montdory caused a sensation before playing Le Cid, and established him as one of the best playwrights around Corneille.
A member of the Académie française in 1649, Tristan accompanied the beginnings of Molière's Illustre Théâtre, and gave Madeleine Béjart great success in The Death of Seneca. He also protects Quinault, whose career he encourages by proposing the first elements of copyright.
(Paris: 1922 to - 21 August 2006 in Paris)
Radio man, co-founder and director of France culture, Alain Trutat discovered his passion for books thanks to Paul Eluard. The two men are neighbours, they live a short distance from each other on the Montmartre hill. In the 1950s, the poet had just lost his wife Nush, and his friendship with Alain Trutat and his wife Jacqueline helped him through this difficult period. Eluard will dedicate to the Trutat couple Time is running outthe book written in memory of his missing wife.
(born on 16 April 1896 in Moinești, Romania, and died on 24 December 1963 in the 7th arrondissement of Paris)
Writer, poet and essayist of Romanian and French languages and one of the founders of the Dada movement of which he was later the leader.
(Toulon: December 21, 1886 - Solliès-Pont: November 10, 1954)
Member of theFantasy Schoole, which also included Paul-Jean Toulet, Tristan Derème, Jean-Marc Bernard, Tristan Klingsor and Francis Carco, Jean Pellerin and Robert de la Vaissière. Employed at the town hall in 1904, married in 1909, Vérane published a first collection with the help of Paul Fort in 1910 and Vérane founded the magazine Les Facets which will appear with interruptions until 1946.
After the Great War he continued his literary activity: eight poetic works in about ten years, five studies and portraits, including an evocation of his native Toulon (1930).
After the Second World War Vérane moved to Paris and frequented François Bernouard, Philippe Chabaneix, Francis Carco and Vincent Muselli. He publishes three more poetic works, receives the Grand Prix de la Maison de Poésie, the Légion d'Honneur and in 1951, the Prix Auguste-Capdeville of the Académie Française for the whole of his poetic work.
Jean Bruller dit Vercors
(born on 26 February 1902 in Paris XVth and died on 10 June 1991 at 58 quai des Orfèvres, Paris Ist)
French illustrator and writer. He adopted the literary pseudonym Vercors in 1941 during the Resistance.
Madame de Villefort
"Widow of a major officer who left her without property; she came to ask for a pension and some recommendation from Madame de Maintenon. She came to Madame de Maintenon to ask for a pension and some recommendation. When Madame de Maintenon received it, she gave him a pension, took him in protection, then made him sub-governor of a child of France and always called him her beautiful widow. » (Diary of the Marquis de Dageneau, Volumes 13-14)
(Lyon, 17 December 1878 - Seyssinet, 16 October 1945)
Tancrède de Visa joined Paris at the age of 21 and obtained his philosophy degree from the Sorbonne. Collaborator of Verse and Proseof the Mercure de Francehe is one of the most profound and subtle theorists of Symbolism.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde
(Dublin: 16 October 1854 - Paris: 30 November 1900)